There are as many ways to eat as there are eaters! But to lose weight, some practices have proven their worth. Here we unravel the good from the less good among the latest food trends.
Diets and eating patterns follow each other and are not alike.
Everyone has their defenders for whom it has worked (weight loss, wellness, etc.) and their detractors for whom it has not worked (frustrations, cracks, etc.). There is no universal model for losing weight, because we are all different, with different tastes, different metabolisms, different constraints… In short, not easy to give ready-made tips to find the line. However, it is necessary to distinguish between really extreme and dangerous diets (high protein, ketogenic, for example) and those, more balanced, which have slimming assets from which we can draw inspiration. We present you eight, with their advantages, their disadvantages and the advice of Anaïs Laffond, dietician.
It’s up to you to draw, among these, the assets that seem to you the most adapted to your habits and that you can easily apply. Rather than following a single model, let’s pick the most interesting ideas that tempt us!
CRUDIVORISM, to fill up with vitality
Raw food comes from the west coast of the United States, where fresh fruits and vegetables are enjoyed with delight in the sun. Its principle: eat only raw foods (heated to 42 ° C maximum) to preserve vitamins, digestive enzymes, probiotics … and avoid the formation of toxic compounds due to high temperatures. Followers do not eat only “raw” products, they pass them in the blender, ferment, germinate or dehydrate them at low temperatures.
Its slimming advantages: all processed foods are eliminated (cookies, pastries, ready meals, etc.), which is a good point for the line! Fruits, vegetables and seeds are rich in fiber and require good chewing, which promotes satiety.
Its limitations: excess fiber can be irritating to the intestines, so it is important to work the food to make it more digestible, by crushing it, fermenting it, etc. There is often little or no meat and fish in this diet, hence a risk of protein deficiency. And if you eat raw meat and fish, you have to pay close attention to freshness and hygiene.
THE DIETICIAN’S ADVICE : eating half raw and half cooked is a good compromise.
There are gentle cooking (steamed, stewed) that retain a good part of the nutrients and do not cause the formation of harmful grilled compounds.
CHRONONUTRITION, to be in tune with your needs
Developed in the late 1980s by Dr. Alain Delabos, chrononutrition is a way of eating that respects the biological rhythm, the variation of hormonal and enzymatic secretions. No food is prohibited, but it must be eaten at the right time: fat and protein at breakfast when lipase is at its maximum; a full lunch at noon with proteins and starchy foods that will be well assimilated thanks to protease and amylase; a sugary snack in the late afternoon to counter energy loss; A very light dinner (lean proteins and vegetables), or not at all, because digestive secretions are low.
Its slimming advantages: having a salty breakfast (cheese, egg, ham, etc.) is a good idea: it provides proteins necessary for the formation of dopamine, the hormone of wakefulness and motivation, and it satiates much longer than a sweet breakfast. The snack planned in the afternoon avoids cravings in the evening.
Its limitations: making a hearty breakfast with a large portion of cheese is not suitable for everyone. Similarly, the evening meal is often a convivial moment with family that is difficult to skip. Finally, this way of eating gives pride of place to animal proteins, while we know today that for its health and the planet, it is necessary to reduce them.
THE DIETICIAN’S ADVICE: For those who are rather salty and have an appetite in the morning, this diet can be tempted to lose weight. But if it does not suit us, we must not force ourselves to follow it, so as not to cause frustrationns deleterious.
THE GLUTEN-FREE DIET, for easy digestion
There are people who suffer from gluten intolerance (or celiac disease) in whom a strict gluten-free diet is mandatory: gluten causes an immune reaction that destroys the intestinal wall, leading to malabsorption of nutrients, digestive disorders and deficiencies.
And there are those who are sensitive to gluten: although the tests do not show intolerance, they feel better and have less digestive disorders when they stop consuming gluten.
Its slimming advantages: wheat is very present in our diet. If we remove everything that contains it (bread, pasta, cakes, cookies, pizza, quiche, etc.), it’s good for the line. We also eliminate a large number of industrial products that contain it (sauces, soups, sausages, breaded fish, surimi, etc.). In other words, we cook more home, which is ideal for controlling the amounts of fat and added sugar.
Its limits: be careful not to be tempted by “gluten-free” industrial products. They are convenient for troubleshooting, but can be bad for the line if you consume too much.
They often contain white rice and corn flour with a high glycemic index (sugar passes quickly into the blood and does not satiate for long). Additives and/or fat are often added to improve texture.
THE DIETICIAN’S ADVICE: It’s always interesting to vary your diet and try other gluten-free cereals such as quinoa, buckwheat, brown rice, oats, millet, fonio… as long as you cook at home!
THE DIET LOW IN FODMAPS, for a flat stomach
“Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols”, or Fodmaps, are small fermentable sugars. Poorly digested sometimes in the small intestine, they arrive in the colon where intestinal bacteria will degrade them, resulting in a call of water and gas. Australian researchers discovered, in the early 2000s, the interest of a low-Fodmap diet in people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (abdominal pain associated with transit disorders). For a month or two, it is a question of excluding all foods containing Fodmaps (certain fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, low-fat products, etc.), then gradually reintroducing them, noting those that cause problems and, for those, the dose not to be exceeded.
Its slimming advantages: for people intolerant to Fodmaps (stomach aches, bloating, flatulence), this diet allows you to find a flatter stomach and a certain well-being. But for others, it brings nothing.
Its limitations: Fodmaps are present in a large number of foods, so it is a fairly restrictive diet. It is better to be accompanied by a nutritionist or dietician specializing in this type of diet to do well.
THE DIETICIAN’S ADVICE: do not exclude all foods containing Fodmaps, otherwise there is a risk of imbalance and deficiencies. All well-tolerated foods should be reintroduced and, for others, whether small doses pass or if it is better to replace them.
INTERMITTENT FASTING, to feel lighter
Intermittent fasting involves not eating for 16 hours and concentrating your food intake for 8 hours. In short, it consists of skipping one of the three meals of the day. For example, you finish your lunch at 8:30 p.m., you don’t have breakfast and you wait until 12:30 p.m. for lunch. It is important, however, to hydrate regularly (water, infusion without sugar) and of course not to snack during the 8 hours of food intake, even if a snack is possible. Doctors are beginning to take an interest in it, because scientific studies show that this practice has benefits.
However, it is not recommended for children, pregnant women and frail people.
Its slimming advantages: not eating for 16 hours allows you to put your intestines and liver at rest. These organs can detoxify better. And who says no digestion says more energy, because digestion consumes a lot of energy. Focusing meals on 8 hours can also reduce energy intake a little. Finally, by waiting 16 hours to eat, this practice helps to regain feelings of hunger and satiety.
Its limitations: it is not always easy to skip a meal (breakfast with children, lunch with colleagues, family dinner). And some people can not go long without eating (stroke, cravings).
THE DIETICIAN’S ADVICE: Intermittent fasting is milder than long fasting. It is well suited for people who are not hungry in the morning. Care must be taken to balance the two meals, eating more at noon than in the evening so as not to disturb sleep.
THE LOW GI DIET, for long-lasting satiety
Before, we distinguished between simple carbohydrates (sweet products) and complex carbohydrates (starchy foods) and then we realized that some simple carbohydrates (for example those from fruit) were absorbed more slowly than some other complex carbohydrates (for example those from white bread). In the 1980s, researchers at the University of Toronto in Canada devised a tool to classify carbohydrate foods according to their impact on blood sugar: the glycemic index (GI). The higher it is, the faster carbohydrates are absorbed, thus increasing insulin secretion. This promotes storage and reactive hypoglycemia (bar stroke and craving). Conversely, the lower the GI, the slower the carbohydrates are absorbed, allowing for a steady supply of energy.
Its slimming advantages: low GI foods satiate for a long time, which avoids cravings and snacking between meals. No food is forbidden, it’s just a matter of choosing the right ones in each category. For example, you can eat a little low GI sugar (acacia honey, coconut or birch sugar, etc.).
Its limits: if you are not used to eating fiber, it is better to go gradually. You have to look at low GI foods (oatmeal, buckwheat, chickpea flour, brown rice, etc.) and cook them.
THE DIETICIAN’S ADVICE: it is better to start by changing common foods (cereal flakes instead of processed cereals, sourdough bread rather than white baguette, sweet potato to replace the potato) before testing low GI recipes.
VEGETARIANISM, for a healthy diet
If vegetarianism has always existed, especially in India where 40% of the population is vegetarian, in France, the country of good food, it has long remained marginal. But things have changed a lot in recent years. Concerns about health (cholesterol, saturated fats), animal welfare (factory farming, abuse) and now the environment (pollution, deforestation, greenhouse gases) have changed mentalities. More and more young people are adopting a vegetarian diet. Adults looking for healthier food are also getting into it.
Its slimming advantages: removing meat and deli meats avoids saturated fats that are easily stored, but also omega 6 and excess iron that are pro-inflammatory and can unbalance the microbiota, which we now know is involved in weight management. Eating more fruits, vegetables and grains is like eating more fiber, which is satiating and good for the microbiota.
Its limitations: it is not a question of replacing its usual share of meat with an industrial vegetable steak. Too fatty, too salty and not enough protein, processed products must remain occasional. It is important to be well informed to keep a varied, balanced diet and avoid deficiencies.
THE DIETICIAN’S ADVICE: You have to structure your plate with a third of protein (egg, tofu, lentils, split peas, etc.), a third of cereals (pasta, rice, quinoa, buckwheat, etc.) and a third of vegetables. I advise storing eggs and dairy products to prevent any deficiency.
THE PALEO DIET, for a return to the natural
The idea of eating like prehistoric humans to be healthy does not come from hippies living in the wilderness, but from American scientists who, in the 1980s, hypothesized that the diet best suited to our genes would be that of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. Many cookbooks on the subject followed.
It is a question of removing all the products that did not exist before agriculture, and of course the industry (cereals, pulses, dairy products, refined sugar, processed foods), and to compose his plate with fruits and vegetables, quality animal proteins (pasture-fed meat, wild fish, organic eggs) and good graisses (olive or walnut oil, coconut milk, etc.).
Its slimming advantages: the paleo plate is rich in fiber and proteins that promote satiety.
Processed foods, which often contain too many fats, sugars, salt and additives, are banned.
Its limits: it is a fairly restrictive diet, but we know that prohibitions create frustrations that cause disruptions in eating behavior. The portion of animal protein is high, which is not recommended for health.
THE DIETICIAN’S ADVICE: Before embarking on this type of diet, I advise to be well informed and if possible to be accompanied by a dietician to avoid deficiencies.
We are also inspired by habits from elsewhere
– The salty breakfast of the English: white beans, fried eggs and bacon bring proteins and carbohydrates to low GI, for a morning without bar stroke or cravings. Of course, we adapt the quantities to our needs (low if we work in an office).
– The plate composed of Thais: a base of rice or noodles, several sautéed vegetables, a little meat or shrimp, seeds, herbs and spices, here is a complete and perfectly balanced plate.
– The moderation of the Japanese: the “hara hachi bun me” diet consists of eating 80% of your hunger, so to leave the table before being full, to ensure digestive comfort and better health. It is one of the pillars of the diet of Okinawa, the island of centenarians.
At TABLE: the main rules
It is not only the content of the plate that counts, our way of eating is also important to avoid excess.
– Make three meals a day at a regular time.
– Eat sitting at a table (not on the couch or standing).
– Eat in peace (without television or tablet).
– Take your time and chew each bite well.
– Do not discuss topics that upset at the table.
– Drink small amounts of water.
– Do a digestive walk if possible.